Order of adjectives in English

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Adjectives follow a specific order

Have you ever wondered why we say “a lucky black cat ” and not a “black lucky cat” ? Or why it sounds wrong to say a “green square big” object ?

If you are a native English speaker, this is something you have probably never studied, but you automatically know which order adjectives should be placed in, because they sound really strange if not, right ?.For non-native speakers of English, there is a grammatical rule which you can learn to make sure you always have your adjectives under control.

What you need to know

1) Opinion e.g. attractive, fascinating, silly, disgusting, foolish, beautiful

2) Size e.g. massive, huge, tall, tiny, minuscule

3) Dimension e.g. heavy, weighty, round, rectangular, lengthy, tall

4) Age e.g. old, ancient, antique

5) Colour e.g. pink, black, greenish, pearly white

6) Pattern e.g. striped, spotty, flowery, splotchy

7) Origin e.g.African, Irish, Mediterranean, Roman

8) Material: e.g.wooden, linen, metal, silicone

And then we add the noun – the object/person/situation we are describing.

It is unlikely we are ever going to use 8 adjectives in a sentence. The amazing, tiny, weightless, ancient, grey, spotty, French paper doll doesn’t exactly roll off the tongue. But we often use two, and sometimes three……beautiful, blue sky, or big, round, yellow, spotted ball. And the words in any other order are going to sound extremely weird. So welcome to this incredible, new, bright working week !

Origins of the expressions “flying colours” and “show true colours”

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Ship flying colourful flags

To pass with flying colours

We usually use “to pass with flying colours” in conjunction with some type of test or exam to express the idea that the candidate has achieved high marks.  

“ My son passed his exam with flying colours”. “ Oh really, that’s wonderful!”

But where does this phrase come from? Like other expressions still in common use today, this has its origins in nautical history and refers to the colourful flags flying from a masthead of a ship. In the past, before the use of the widespread communication channels of today, a ship’s appearance was the key to how they had fared on their voyage.  If a ship had been defeated in battle, flags were not flown. But when a ship returned to port victorious from a mission, all their flags would be on display to show their achievement and to communicate this from afar, before the ship docked.

And….

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A ship destroyed by pirates

To show your true colours

In a similar way, “to show your true colours” also has its roots in naval history. Sometimes pirate ships would use the tactic of a friendly flag in order to deceive their prey and gain proximity. Once they had secured access to the ship, the pirate flag would be shown and they would attack in search of treasure. Of course, nowadays we use this expression to denote that someone has shown their real (usually unpleasant) feelings or personality after a period of initial friendliness.

Origins of the word “geek”

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Where does the word geek come from ?

A word with a story

 This word originates from the German word “geck” and was used in the 16th century to describe someone who participated in the activities offered at funfairs or carnivals, knowing full well they would lose their money – in other words, a fool. But somehow by the 16th century it had become the word to describe the people who played a part in the carnival itself. This process of gradual change in meaning is known as semantic drift.  A 16th century funfair was pretty off-putting by today’s standards, as many of these geeks entertained people by biting the heads off dead animals…. pretty disgusting and definitely not today’s standards of fun. But by the early 20th century, a “geek” was also the definition of someone who played a dangerous role in the funfair – for example, the strongman or the fire eater, but it was still used as a word to describe people who performed freaky and sensational circus acts.

Modern geeks

In the second half of the 20th century, with the emergence of computers and new technologies, the word “geek” semantically drifted again.  Society needed a word to describe people who were devoted to and often obsessed with technology, and along with their passion for technical wizardry, were often socially awkward.  During the 1980’s these people began to be known as “geeks”. It was and still is, sometimes, used as a derogatory term, but geeks are finally beginning to have the last laugh. The increasingly significant role of technology in today’s world means that people with geeky skills are more and more in demand. In addition, if you call yourself a geek, it is generally in order to validate your knowledge and passion for technology, and not in the least offensive. An interesting journey then, for the word “geek”, which over time has changed its meaning from fool to expert.

What exactly is IELTS?

IELTS – the exam

IELTS is an acronym for International English Language Testing System. There are two types of IELTS exam, general or academic. These differ in the reading and writing sections. Listening and speaking are the same in both. General IELTS is geared towards students who would like to emigrate to an English-speaking country and are therefore required to show they gave a level of English in order to cope with issues they could encounter as a resident. Academic IELTS is generally for non-native speakers of English who wish to study a university course or master´s degree in English and their desired place of study will normally advise them on the mark they need in order to gain access to the course.

What’s in the exam ?

There are 4 sections – Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking. There is no Use of English but obviously a good grasp of grammar is necessary to score a higher mark. Candidates score from 0 to 9 based on their performance in the aforementioned sections. An overall mark of 6.5 or 7 is around a high B2 level of English.

Listening

This listening section consists of 40 questions which become progressively more difficult. The first section is a telephone conversation between two speakers and you will need to fill in the missing information. It’s a good idea to clearly understand numbers in English and the English alphabet for this exam. The answers in Section 2 and 3 are very much vocabulary based. Vocabulary is extremely important in IELTS, and understanding and using synonyms is an essential part of overall exam, not just in the listening paper. The last section will be a monologue on an academic or scientific subject. Don’t worry about the subject of the monologue itself, it’s not necessary to be an expert on say, ancient Greek archeology, to pinpoint the answers to the questions.

Speaking

Unlike the Cambridge exams, the IELTS speaking exam is for an individual exam candidate with one speaking examiner only. The test consists of 3 parts – firstly, a Q and A session, secondly, a 1 to 2 minute monologue from the student on a given subject, and finally, opinion related questions. What the examiner wants to hear is that the candidate has fluid English and can express opinions clearly in a logical way using a range of suitable vocabulary.

Reading

General IELTS – 40 questions on 3 texts related to documents or topics you find in real life e.g. instructions from a manual or rules for a competition. There are a variety of different question types and it is crucial to understand and practice all the different question possibilities e.g. one or two word gap fills, matching ideas to paragraphs, multiple choice, matching headings, and more.

Academic IELTS – 40 questions which vary in type on 3 texts relating to academic/ scientific articles. There are usually some very specific words relating to the topic in question which most people (including teachers) would not understand unless they happen to have some expert knowledge on this subject themselves. However, these academic or scientific words will either be explained in the text, or you will not need to know the specific meaning of the word if it is used in a question.

Writing

General IELTS – Task 1 consists of writing a letter (minimum 150 words) which can be informal, semi-formal or formal, for example writing to your landlord, or bank manager, about a particular situation that will be outlined in the question. Task 2 is an essay, minimum 250 words.

Academic IELTS – Task 1 consists of comparing and contrasting data which can be in the form of line graphs, pie charts, bar charts, tables, flow charts, maps or diagrams. The minimum 150 word also applies here. Task 2 is an essay, also minimum 250 words.

Unlike other exams, there is no choice of writing tasks in either General or Academic IELTS. There will be one writing task 1 and one writing task 2 per exam. If you do not reach the minimum amount of words in both writing tasks, there is a penalty which will lower your score. This applies to both General and Academic IELTS.

An overview of the IELTS exam

My advice to new IELTS students

In particular, if you are not very technical or scientifically-minded, Academic IELTS can look scary at first glance– it has a different approach from the Cambridge exams, it has questions on diagrams and flow charts which are often unfamiliar territory, and a lot of the material is highly scientific or academic. But like any other English Language exam, it’s just a question of having the necessary level of English plus practising with exam questions until it is clear there is a high possibility of achieving the score you need.  With regards to the speaking and writing sections, the examiner’s criteria for these parts of the IELTS exam are easily accessible on Internet, and understanding what the examiner wants you to do will help you get the score you are aiming for.

For a look at IELTS in more detail, go to https://takeielts.britishcouncil.org/

Origin of the word “freelance”

  Maybe some of you are who reading this post are freelancers, like me. But have you ever thought about where this term originated? It actually began life as two words – free lance, then was hyphenated as free-lance and today is spelt as one word.

Well, it seems to have come into usage in the 19th century and was used by Sir Walter Scott in 1819, in his book Ivanhoe, to describe what we would call today a mercenary, i.e. a soldier with his own equipment, that is, his lance, who would accept payment for the use of his weapon and his fighting abilities. Does this sound like an analogy for a modern day freelancer?  Obviously, we do not go around killing people with lances ….but for example, freelance writers have our own equipment such as writing skills and a computer with Internet access for a start, and we sell our services to who we wish, rather than being a salaried member of an organization. And in keeping with the military tone, we often have our own, less bloody, battles to fight.

In addition, freelancers are often perceived as being happier as not only do they work independently from a boss, they are generally following their passion in life be it writing, painting, computer technology, you name it…………there’s bound to be a freelancer who offers this service.

English is Alive !

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Words are like flames in a fire – they live, twist and turn, die out or revive.

  Yes, English is most definitely alive and kicking. It might sound strange to you that a language can be considered to be a living thing, but the English language is constantly evolving and has done so ever since the Anglo Saxon language developed into what we now call Middle English, which in turn became Early Modern English, leading the way to how we speak English today.

How changes happen

Of course, these changes do not happen overnight. They are shaped by society’s attitude to events, by circumstance, by the new inventions of the age – just think how many new words have been invented due to technological advances in the twentieth century, let alone the swirl of technology that surrounds us now.  Here are just six examples of common words or expressions that would bewilder our forefathers – Wi-Fi, broadband (technology), greenhouse gas, carbon footprint (circumstance), or , transgender, manspreading (social change).

And of course, any language evolves due to the same type of events in its society and this is why there are many different types of English we can find throughout the world. Why do Americans say “sidewalk” when the British say “pavement”? Well, because before globalization, the English language developed one way in the U.S. and another in the U.K. Nowadays with the Internet, Hollywood films and globalisation, a great many British people are familiar with American terms, and even though they may never use the word themselves, they clearly recognise it and know its meaning.   Nevertheless, in the world of the Mayflower and the pilgrims, the English language was developing due to social change and circumstances in Britain, which were not the same as in the United States, so therefore language evolution was different in North America. 

Other Languages

And what is more, exactly the same process happened with Spanish in the Latin American countries after the first Spanish settlers arrived . Often, in the same way as American English, the emigrants retained the same word from the original language – for example, “carro” in Mexican Spanish, which originally meant “cart”, is now used to signify a car.  In Spain however, a new word for car was invented, “coche”.  Words like “trash” or “stove” – still used widely in North America – evolved into “rubbish” and “cooker” in Britain. Some people claim that American English or British English is better than the other – It seems to me that they are really just expressing a preference for the vocabulary used in their territory.

So what do you think? Do you believe one strain of English is better than another?

 

My blog

So, welcome to my all-inclusive, non-judgmental blog. If you enjoy reading about the English language for whatever reason, join me. I’ll be posting advice for exam students for the First, Advanced and IELTS exams along with musings on the idiosyncrasies of the English language for anyone who is interested. I look forward to blogging with you again soon.